The Sun is the star at the center of our Solar system. Earth orbits the Sun, as do many other bodies, including other planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and dust. Its heat and light support almost all life on Earth. It is sometimes referred to by its Latin name, Sol.

The Sun is a ball of plasma with a mass of about 2×1030 kg, which is somewhat higher than that of an average star. About 74% of its mass is hydrogen, with 25% helium and the rest made up of trace quantities of heavier elements. It is thought that the Sun is about 5 billion years old, and is about halfway through its main sequence evolution, during which nuclear fusion reactions in its core fuse hydrogen into helium. In about 5 billion years time the Sun will evolve into a red giant and then a white dwarf.

Although it is the nearest star to Earth and has been intensively studied by scientists, many questions about the Sun remain unanswered, such as why its outer atmosphere has a temperature of over 106 K when its visible surface (the photosphere) has a temperature of just 6,000 K.

The Sun is classified as a main sequence star, which means it is in a state of "hydrostatic balance", neither contracting nor expanding, and is generating its energy through nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium. The Sun has a spectral class of G2V, with the G2 meaning that its color is yellow and its spectrum contains spectral lines of ionized and neutral metals as well as very weak hydrogen lines, and the V signifying that it, like most stars, is a "main sequence" star.

The Sun has a predicted main sequence lifetime of about 10 billion years. Its current age is thought to be about 4.5 billion years, a figure which is determined using computer models of stellar evolution, and nucleocosmochronology. The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way galaxy at a distance of about 25,000 to 28,000 light-years from the galactic centre, completing one revolution in about 226 million years. The orbital speed is 217 km/s, equivalent to one light year every 1400 years, and one AU every 8 days. Compared to the average movement of other stars in the area, the Sun is moving with a speed of 20 km/s toward the star Vega.

The astronomical symbol for the Sun is a circle with a point at its centre

The Babcock Model describes a mechanism which can explain magnetic and sunspot patterns observed on the Sun.

A modern understanding of sunspots starts with George Ellery Hale, in which magnetic fields and sunspots are linked. Hale suggested that the sunspot cycle period is 22 years, covering two polar reversals of the solar magnetic dipole field.

11:11 Sun Cycle

Horace W. Babcock proposed in 1961 a qualitative model for the dynamics of the solar outer layers:

The start of the 22-year cycle begins with a well-established dipole field component aligned along the solar rotational axis. The field lines tend to be held by the highly conductive solar plasma of the solar surface.

The solar surface plasma rotation rate is different at different latitudes, and the rotation rate is 20 percent faster at the equator than at the poles (one rotation every 27 days). Consequently, the magnetic field lines are wrapped by 20 percent every 27 days.

After many rotations, the field lines become highly twisted and bundled, increasing their intensity, and the resulting buoyancy lifts the bundle to the solar surface, forming a bipolar field that appears as two spots, being kinks in the field lines.

The sunspots result from the strong local magnetic fields in the solar surface that exclude the light-emitting solar plasma and appear as darkened spots on the solar surface.

The leading spot of the bipolar field has the same polarity as the solar hemisphere, and the trailing spot is of opposite polarity. The leading spot of the bipolar field tends to migrate towards the equator, while the trailing spot of opposite polarity migrates towards the solar pole of the respective hemisphere with a resultant reduction of the solar dipole moment. This process of sunspot formation and migration continues until the solar dipole field reverses (after about 11 years).

The solar dipole field, through similar processes, reverses again at the end of the 22-year cycle.

The magnetic field of the spot at the equator sometimes weakens, allowing an influx of coronal plasma that increases the internal pressure and forms a magnetic bubble which may burst and produce an ejection of coronal mass, leaving a coronal hole with open field lines. Such a coronal mass ejections are a source of the high-speed solar wind.

The fluctuations in the bundled fields convert magnetic field energy into plasma heating, producing emission of electromagnetic radiation as intense ultraviolet (UV) and X-rays.

Electric Stars

"Plasma physicists argue that stars are formed by an electromagnetic "pinch" effect on widely dispersed gas and dust. The "pinch" is created by the magnetic force between parallel current filaments that are part of the huge electric currents flowing inside a galaxy. It is far more effective than gravity in concentrating matter and, unlike gravity, it can remove excess angular momentum that tends to prevent collapse. Stars will form like beads on a wire until gravity takes over.

The late Ralph Juergens, an engineer from Flagstaff, Arizona, in the 1970's took the next mental leap to suggest that the electrical input doesn't stop there and that
stars are not thermonuclear engines! This is obvious when the Sun is looked at from an electrical discharge perspective. The galactic currents that create the stars persist to power them. Stars behave as electrodes in a galactic glow discharge. Bright stars like our Sun are great concentrated balls of lightning!

The matter inside stars becomes positively charged as electrons drift toward the surface. The resulting internal electrostatic forces prevent stars from collapsing gravitationally and occasionally cause them to "give birth" by electrical fissioning to form companion stars and gas giant planets. Sudden brightening, or a nova outburst marks such an event. That elucidates why stars commonly have partners and why most of the giant planets so far detected closely orbit their parent star."

Our Electric Sun

"Today's orthodox thermonuclear models fail to explain many observed solar phenomena. The Electric Sun model is inherently predictive of all these observed phenomena. It is simple. It is self consistent. And it does not require the existence of mysterious entities such as the unseen solar "dynamo" that lurks somewhere beneath the surface of the fusion model. The Electric Sun model does not violate Maxwell's equations as the fusion model does.

Ralph Juergens had the genius to develop the Electric Sun model back in the 1970's. His model uniquely passes the harsh tests of observed reality. His seminal work may eventually get the recognition it deserves. Or, of course, others may try to claim it, or parts of it, and hope the world forgets who came up with these ideas first.

There is now enough inescapable evidence that a majority of the phenomena we observe on the Sun are fundamentally electrical in nature. Ralph Juergens was the person with the vision to see it." read more at

Platonic Solids

Plato conceived the four classical elements as atoms with the geometrical shapes of four of the five platonic solids that had been discovered by the Pythagoreans (in the Timaeus). These are, of course, not the true shapes of atoms; but it turns out that they are some of the true shapes of packed atoms and molecules, namely crystals: The mineral salt sodium chloride occurs in cubic crystals, fluorite (calcium fluoride) in octahedra, and pyrite in dodecahedra (see uses below).

This concept linked fire with the tetrahedron, earth with the cube, air with the octahedron and water with the icosahedron. There was intuitive justification for these associations: the heat of fire feels sharp and stabbing (like little tetrahedra). Air is made of the octahedron; its minuscule components are so smooth that one can barely feel it. Water, the icosahedron, flows out of one's hand when picked up, as if it is made of tiny little balls. By contrast, a highly un-spherical solid, the hexahedron (cube) represents earth. These clumsy little solids cause dirt to crumble and breaks when picked up, in stark difference to the smooth flow of water.

The fifth Platonic Solid, the dodecahedron, Plato obscurely remarks, "...the god used for arranging the constellations on the whole heaven" (Timaeus 55). He didn't really know what else to do with it. Aristotle added a fifth element, aithêr (aether in Latin, "ether" in English) and postulated that the heavens were made of this element, but he had no interest in matching it with Plato's fifth solid.

The tetrahedron, cube, and octahedron, are found naturally in crystal structures. The dodecahedron is combinatorially identical to the pyritohedron (in that both have twelve pentagonal faces), which is one of the possible crystal structures of pyrite. However, the pyritohedron is not a regular dodecahedron, but rather has the same symmetry as the cube.
In meteorology and climatology, global numerical models of atmospheric flow are of increasing interest which employ grids that are based on an icosahedron (refined by triangulation) instead of the more commonly used longitude/latitude grid. This has the advantage of evenly distributed spatial resolution without singularities (i.e. the poles) at the expense of somewhat greater numerical difficulty.

Geometry of space frames is often based on platonic solids. In MERO system, platonic solids are used for naming convention of various space frame configurations. For example ½O+T refers to a configuration made of one half of octahedron and a tetrahedron.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "The Sun", Wikipedia article "Babcock Model" and Wikipedia article "Platonic Solids".The "Electric Stars" excerpt is from